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Oral Medicines That Help Manage Diabetes – TypeFree Diabetes – TypefreeDiabates
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Oral Medicines That Help Manage Diabetes – TypeFree Diabetes

By July 19, 2018 Uncategorized

Type 2 Diabetes Medications

Oral Medicines That Help Manage Diabetes

People diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes have many medicines available to help control their blood sugar levels. These drugs fall into 3 methods of reducing blood sugar levels:

  • Class 1 reduces the amount of glucose the liver releases into the bloodstream.
    • Biguanide (Bi-gwa-need) like Metformin
  • Class 2 increases insulin releaseed into the bloodstream by the pancreas .
    • Sulfonylureas (SUL-fah-nil-YOO-ree-ahs)
    • D-Phenylalnine (dee-fen-nel-AL-ah-neen)
    • Meglitinides (meh-GLIT-in-ides)
  • Class 3 increases the body’s cells sensitive to insulin.
    • Thiazolidinedione (THIGH-ah-ZO-li-deen-DYE-owns)
  • Class 4 slows the absorption of glucose into the bloodstream after eating carbs.
    • Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitors (AL-fa gloo-KOS-ih-dayss in-HIB-it-ers)
  • Class 5 (sitagliptin) increases incretin levels which reduces the amount of glucose released into the bloodstream, but also increases insulin secretion by the pancreas decreases stomach emptying.
    • DPP-4 Inhibitors

Category

Action

Generic Name

Brand Name

Manufacturer

Approval Date

Comments

Sulfonylureas

Stimulates beta cells to release more insulin

Chlorpropamide

Diabinese

Pfizer

10/58

Generally taken one to two times daily, before meals

Glipizide

Glucotrol

Pfizer

5/84

Second generation used in smaller doses than first generation

Glyburide

DiaBeta/ Micronase/Glynase

Aventis, Pharmacia and Upjohn

5/84

Glimepiride

Amaryl

Aventis

11/95

Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitors Slows the absorption glucose into your bloodstream. Acarbose Precose Take with the first bite of your meal.
Glycet Miglitol Take with the first bite of your meal.

Meglitinide

Works with similar action to sulfonylureas

Repaglinide

Prandin

Novo Nordisk

12/97

Taken before each of three meals

 

 

Nateglinide

Starlix

Novartis

12/00

Taken before each of three meals

Biguanide

Reduces the amount of sugar released by the liver.

Metformin

Glucophage

Bristol
Myers Squibb

3/95

Taken two or three times daily with food for best results

Metformin (long lasting)

Glucophage XR

Bristol
Myers Squibb

10/00

Metformin with glyburide

Glucovance

Bristol Myers
Squibb

7/00

Thiazolidinedione (Glitazone)

Lowers insulin
resistance  & Helps insulin work better in muscle and fat;

Rosiglitazone

Avandia

SmithKline Beecham (now GlaxoSmithKline)

5/99

Taken once or twice daily with food; very rare but serious
effect on liver

. . . .

Pioglitazone

Actos

Takeda Pharmaceuticals

7/99






You need to know:

  • Diabetes medicines that lower blood glucose never take the place of healthy eating and exercise.
  • If your blood glucose gets too low more than a few times in a few days, call your doctor.
  • Take your diabetes pills or insulin even if you are sick. If you cannot eat much, call your doctor.

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